Tool design is a specialized area of manufacturing engineering comprising the analysis,
planning, design, construction, and application of tools, methods, and procedures necessary to
increase manufacturing productivity. To carry out these responsibilities, tool designers must have a
working knowledge of machine shop practices, tool-making procedures, machine tool design, and
manufacturing procedures and methods, as well as the more conventional engineering disciplines of
planning, designing, engineering graphics and drawing, and cost analysis.
The main objective of tool design is to increase production while maintaining quality and lowering
costs. To this end, the tool de signer must:
• Reduce the overall cost to manufacture a product by making acceptable parts at the lowest cost.
• Increase the production rate by designing tools to produce parts as quickly as possible.
• Maintain quality by designing tools to consistently produce parts with the required precision.
• Reduce the cost of special tooling by making every design as cost-effective and efficient as possible.
• Design tools to be safe and easy to operate.
Every design must be created with these objectives in mind. No matter how well a tool functions or
produces parts, if it costs more to make the tool than it saves in production, its usefulness is
questionable. Likewise, if a tool cannot maintain the desired degree of repeatability from one part to
the next, it is of no value in production. The following questions should be used as a checklist to
determine if a particular tool design will meet the preceding objectives:
• Does the design require the operator to work close to revolving tools?
• Does the tool have a means to secure it to the machine table?
• Will the fixture keys fit the table of the intended machine?
• Will the tool perform with a high degree of repeatability?
• Has every possible detail been studied to protect the operator from injury?
• Are all sharp edges and burrs removed?
• Is there any possibility of the clamp loosening or the work being pulled from the tool?
• Have the human ergonomics been considered in the design?
• Will coolants and cutting fluids freely drain from the tool?
• Is the tool easy to clean?
• Are coolant flow and chips directed away from the operator?
• Are loose parts attached with a cable or secured safely?
• Is the tool easy for the operator to load and unload?
• Can the tool be loaded and unloaded quickly and safely?
• Is enough leverage allowed for hand-held jigs?
What is the difference between a tool and a die?
Moulds (or molds) and dies are used to make a variety of objects with many different media.
For instance, plastic plumbing pipes can me made in a mould; tools such as wrenches are cast in
dies. Moulds tend to be used to produce products that need to be hollow in the middle, whereas
dies are used to stamp solid products out of media such as steel.
DIE IS a block of metal with a special shape or with a pattern cut into it that is used for shaping other
pieces of metal such as coins or for making patterns.
Dies are used to cut objects from media; a cookie cutter is a very simple form of a die.
Dies are useful because they can cut many objects at once, increasing productivity. Fancy
edged papers are cut by dies, as are machine parts such as washers. Street signs are also
cut with dies. The main idea behind dies is that they are used to create other shapes, and
two dies can be used at the same time to create complex shapes.
Tools and toys are often made with the die casting process. Molten metal is poured or
injected into dies and allowed to cool. The die is then removed, and the product is ready
for finishing. Die casting is a relatively fast process, which allows for faster production. It is
not as refined as the moulding process, and die cast objects may not be as strong as
products made with an injected mould.
MOULD is a container that you pour sift liquid or substance into which then becomes solid in the
same shape as the container e.g. when it is cooled or cooked. A clay mould is used for casting bronze
Moulds help manufacture things like doorknobs. There are two halves to a mould; this
allows a great deal of detail to go into the center of the mould. A liquid medium is poured
or injected into a premade mould; once the liquid is injected or poured in, it is allowed to
cool and the mould is removed. The end result is a single component that may in itself be
the end product, or it can be made to have other things attached to it.
Solid moulds are used to shape pieces of media.The medium is heated and formed into
whatever shape the mould is. For instance, makeup artists may use a sheet of plastic and
a mould to give added dimension to an actor's costume; this is especially useful if they are
making something that does not exist in real life. If they need to make an actor a mask,
for example, they would design the mould, put in a piece of flat plastic, and then press
the plastic into place around the mould. This process takes a lot of pressure that has to be
carefully monitored to keep the plastic from getting too thin or too hot.